Did you ever acknowledge the role creativity plays in translation? To some extent, translation accounts for an act of adaptation. Therefore, it is a creative act. Translators are involved in a continuous process of negotiating between two languages, cultures and mindsets. This process requires a profound comprehension of the two languages.
The creative process of translation and adapting one text to a distinct reality connotes that a translator’s responsibility is both complex and creative.
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Probability and the standard normal distribution
Comparing data from two different distributions can be very challenging. It is therefore important to convert the scores from the different distributions into a common metric so as to conform it to the standard distribution. In standard normal distribution the standard deviation and the means always have fixed values. The standard deviation is 1.0 and the mean is always 0 thus making it possible to directly compare the two distributions. In a standard distribution nearly all the proportions of its population occurring in any area of the distribution are already determined. This means that when any normal distribution is made to conform to the standard distribution then we can establish what’s likely to occur in almost any area of the distribution.
The z-scores are normally used to convert ordinary normal variables with a standard deviation s and a mean m to a normal variable with a standard deviation 1 and a mean of 0. The Z-score therefore clarifies how far a specific value lies from the mean of standard normal distribution in terms of the standard deviation. Transforming values to a Z-score thus allows us to use one table to evaluate probabilities. When transforming data from multiple distributions, if x represents the normal variable in the problem then the Z-score denotes the corresponding variable in the standard distribution.
A proportion of 1.0 can be translated to mean 100% of the population. A Z-score can simple be transformed into a percentage. For instance a value 0.1985 of a normal distribution can occur between the point Z=-0.52 and the point where Z=0. If we multiply 0.1985 by 100 we get 19.85%. This implies that 19.85% of the normal distribution occurs between the two points. The Z-score represents the proportion of the area under the standard curve better than the percentages. The Z-score is very easy to use and can readily be programmed to be used in excel in the case of large data sets. The percentage on the other hand can be quite confusing. For instance when working with a sample where the highest score is 25 and the lowest is 5, it is very easy to assume that the percentage of the population between the two points is 100%. This is, however, never the case since this is only a sample size and there is a possibility someone from the population scored above 25 or below 5. In a standard distribution there will never be a value of z that represents 100% of the distribution.
The Sociological Approach to Social Problem
It is hard to define a social problem because what constitutes a social shortfall differs from one societal group to another. A social problem in the US may not be an issue in some region in Argentina or Iraq. Another problem presented in the definition of social problems is the official bias poised by the high and mighty in society keen on maintaining their status quo. For instance, at some point in the history of slavery, the masters never saw it as a social problem despite the psychological desperation it puts the victims. This paper will discuss two approaches used in understanding social issues. As part of the development, it will examine two theorems of poverty by taking a postmortem of the two approaches used in defining social problems.
There are two approaches used in understanding social problems: person-blame and system-blame. The person-blame approach assumes that social problems are a function of individual pathologies. On the other hand, the system-blame approach assumes that social problems are caused by conditions in a society that is skewed (12). By looking at poverty, sociology can explain why poverty exists and why it is a common social problem.
Sociologists have devised two theories of poverty. The structural-functional theory of poverty is in line with the person-blame theory of social problems. On the other hand, the conflict of interest theory’s provisions coincide with the system blame theory of social problem. According to the structural-functional theory of poverty, there exists inequality in the society to serve as a motivating factor of the poor to attaining a better status. The ladder to the top is the potential difference that the poor can fill to enjoy success (18). This theory does not however point out the individual pathological issues but rather leads to the society. It acknowledges that as much as the person exists, he or she does not live in isolation.
The conflict of interest theory of poverty subscribes to the concept of system-blame approach. It states that the owners of factors of production are the reason the poor lack their necessities. Furthermore, it indicates that there exists the working class (proletariat) who work for wages, and the poor who are perpetually lazy or without a marketable skill to bring to the market. The theory insists that inequality is mandatory for change. This theory derives its strength from the reference to the society as the cause of poverty. It points out greed as the reason for inequality.
Poverty, just like other social problems has its subjective nature. It depends on time, geographical region, and audience (7). What is inferior to one man may be rich to another. That is why the concepts of absolute and relative poverty exist. The poor of a developed country like Russia may be considered rich in some less developed country like Haiti. Similarly, the American rich of 1970 may be regarded as poor in 2015 depending on economic dynamics such as price changes and the advent of technology.
The person-blame approach protects the established order in that t looks at numbers. If a problem like malaria affects an individual or several individuals scattered all over the country, it is termed as a private issue. However, the government will step in if it concentrates in an area, and the numbers of those affected are adjudged to be many. People are expected to work themselves out of individual problems and may only benefit if their problem affects the whole community. The person-blame approach gives the individual autonomy over their welfare by empowering them to work hard. The knowledge that no one cares about his or her problem makes the individual creative enough to avoid suffering.
As much as individuals have direct control over their standard of living, they have little or no control over their fate. Individuals may have done all the necessary preparation towards autonomy but fall short of being recognized as a result of luck. For instance, an unemployed graduate may suffer due to societal issues like corruption. Another may be structurally unemployed because of the labor market’s inability to absorb them. Therefore, considering both the person-blame and system-blame approach and not one in isolation best explains poverty.
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ESSAY OUTLINE: PET CAT VERSES PET DOG
Topic sentence: Dogs and cats are the most popular pets in the world.
The importance of keeping pets includes making the home lively and for the purpose of companionship.
Thesis: Despite the numerous similarities present in cats and dogs as pets and their ability to co-exist within the same household, these two also have their own unique characteristics.
Purpose: The following essay compares and contrasts cats and dogs through discussing their requirements for maintenance, appearances and personalities.
II. Maintenance Requirements
a. Cats: The following section discusses the food, medical care, toys, grooming and litter boxes as they are required for maintaining pet cats.
b. Dogs: The following section discusses food, medical care, toys, grooming, walks, bathroom training, distemper and worms as they apply in maintaining dogs.
a. Cats: The appearance of the pet cat is described through identification of long tails, four legs, whiskers and soft fur.
b. Dogs: The appearance of the pet dog is described as it is seen in different households such as tail length, legs and the nature of fur.
a. Cats: The personality traits are discussed through mentioning its independence, vanity, sensuality, solitary, self-absorbed, sleeping tendencies, catnip and the love for playing in the sun as is seen in most cats.
b. Dogs: The personalities of dogs are discussed by mentioning its loyalty to owner, orientation to belong in a pack, love for being outside, ability to be trained, alert nature and protective tendencies as noted in majority of them.
Summary: The main similarities between pet dogs and cats are evident in appearance and maintenance. However, in the personalities of these pets, numerous differences are cited.
Evaluation: The two pets are popular in the modern households as they bring joy to their families. Despite their differences neither of the two pets is likely to lose its popularity or status any time soon.
1) Reference: Sheehan, M. (2008). The Changing Character of War. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations.
2) Subject: Sheehan discusses war as a major institution of the international relations. The nature of war is changing with the intensifying globalization to reflect the changes in technology.
3) Central Argument: Sheehan argues that war has become an important part of human existence and a central phenomenon in human history (216). He argues that war has been the domain of great powers, but it is taking a new direction whereby the shadow of the powers is present in developing regions (218). Sheehan directs his argument to show how war has changed with the improved technology and to include the modern warfare.
As a child growing from a humble background, I have interacted with people from different walks of life. Based on my personal exposure to the less fortunate in the society over the years, the passion of helping incapacitated persons has not developed to be my hobby but also my desired career in life. Personally, I settled to be an occupational therapist based on its core objective of helping patients with a disability on how they can earn a living, take care of themselves and to be independent in their lives. Occupational therapy as a profession inspires me, especially its holistic approach to handling patients that I can cite as my personal principles and moral obligation to help the physically challenged in the society. Besides having the passion for helping the disabled, I also seek to build on my professional skills to enable me work collectively with the patients.